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Land transportation 

Land transportation 

The land transportation  services runs between Egypt and all Arab Countries. And that for both the dry transportation and the refrigerated one. Euro van international provide one of the most secure and rapid road transportation

Systems[EVI]

Several systems of Land transportation  have been devised, from the most basic system of humans carrying things from place to sophisticated networks of ground-based transportation utilizing different types of vehicles and infrastructure. The three types are human-powered, animal powered and machine powered

Land transport

Human-powered transport remains common in developing countries.

Human powered Land transportation [EVI]

 

Human-powered transport remains common in developing countries.

Human powered transport, a form of sustainable transportation, is the transport of people and/or goods using human muscle-power, in the form of walkingrunning and swimming. Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance human power. Human-powered transport remains popular for reasons of cost-saving, leisurephysical exercise, and environmentalism; it is sometimes the only type available, especially in underdeveloped or inaccessible regions.

Although humans are able to walk without infrastructure, the transport can be enhanced through the use of roads, especially when using the human power with vehicles, such as bicycles and inline skates. Human-powered vehicles have also been developed for difficult environments, such as snow and water, by watercraft rowing and skiing; even the air can be entered with human-powered aircraft.

Animal-powered transportation[EVI]

Main article: Animal-powered transport

Animal-powered transport is the use of working animals for the movement of people and goods. Humans may ride some of the animals directly, use them as pack animals for carrying goods, or harness them, alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles.

Road transportation[EVI]

Main article: Road transport

 

The Harbor Freeway is often heavily congested at rush hour in Downtown Los Angeles.

A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places.[1] Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel;[2] though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance.[3] In urban areas, roads may pass through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route.[4]

The most common road vehicle is the automobile; a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Other users of roads include busestrucksmotorcyclesbicycles and pedestrians. As of 2002, there were 590 million automobiles worldwide. Automobiles have caused air pollution which results to people getting Asthma . Road transport offers a complete freedom to road users to transfer the vehicle from one lane to the other and from one road to another according to the need and convenience. This flexibility of changes in location, direction, speed, and timings of travel is not available to other modes of transport. It is possible to provide door to door service only by road transport.

Automobiles offer high flexibility and with low capacity, but are deemed with high energy and area use, and the main source of noise and air pollution in cities; buses allow for more efficient travel at the cost of reduced flexibility.[5] Road transport by truck is often the initial and final stage of freight transport.

Rail transportation[EVI]

Main article: Rail transport

 

InterCityExpress, a German high-speed passenger train

Rail transport is where a train runs along a set of two parallel steel rails, known as a railway or railroad. The rails are anchored perpendicular to ties (or sleepers) of timber, concrete or steel, to maintain a consistent distance apart, or gauge. The rails and perpendicular beams are placed on a foundation made of concrete, or compressed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast. Alternative methods include monorail and maglev.

A train consists of one or more connected vehicles that run on the rails. Propulsion is commonly provided by a locomotive, that hauls a series of unpowered cars, that can carry passengers or freight. The locomotive can be powered by steamdiesel or by electricity supplied by trackside systems. Alternatively, some or all the cars can be powered, known as a multiple unit. Also, a train can be powered by horsescablesgravitypneumatics and gas turbines. Railed vehicles move with much less friction than rubber tires on paved roads, making trains more energy efficient, though not as efficient as ships.

Intercity trains are long-haul services connecting cities;[6] modern high-speed rail is capable of speeds up to 350 km/h (220 mph), but this requires specially built track. Regional and commuter trains feed cities from suburbs and surrounding areas, while intra-urban transport is performed by high-capacity tramways and rapid transits, often making up the backbone of a city’s public transport. Freight trains traditionally used box cars, requiring manual loading and unloading of the cargo. Since the 1960s, container trains have become the dominant solution for general freight, while large quantities of bulk are transported by dedicated trains.

Other modes[EVI]

 

Trans-Alaska Pipeline for crude oil

Pipeline transport sends goods through a pipe; most commonly liquid and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes can also send solid capsules using compressed air. For liquids/gases, any chemically stable liquid or gas can be sent through a pipeline. Short-distance systems exist for sewageslurrywater and beer, while long-distance networks are used for petroleum and natural gas.

Cable transport is a broad mode where vehicles are pulled by cables instead of an internal power source. It is most commonly used at steep gradient. Typical solutions include aerial tramwayelevatorsescalator and ski lifts; some of these are also categorized as conveyor transport

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